The Ohio Violence and Injury Prevention Section (VIPS) is a data-driven program that uses population-based surveillance systems and additional data sources to inform prevention activities, policies and program-evaluation efforts. The VIPS assesses the impact of violence and injury on Ohio’s population by analyzing morbidity, mortality, and survey data.
Injury Surveillance and Data includes data related to injury data reports and dashboards, the Ohio Violent Death Reporting System (OH-VDRS), and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) Hospital Reporting.
Injury Data Reports and Dashboards
Drug Overdose Reports
2020 Ohio Drug Overdose Report - Published Dec. 2021
2020 Drug Overdose Data: Demographic Summary - Published Dec. 2021
Traumatic Brain Injury Reports
Falls among Older Adults Reports
Ohio Violent Death Reporting System (OH-VDRS)
OH-VDRS, established in 2009, is a reporting system that collects information from multiple sources in an attempt to better understand the circumstances surrounding violent deaths. OH-VDRS is funded through a cooperative agreement with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and is part of the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS).
OH-VDRS links information from the data sources listed below to create a comprehensive record of the incident. The data are used to study violence trends, identify risk factors associated with violence, and develop intervention and prevention strategies. The data may also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of existing programs and policies to reduce violence. Collecting these data in one database allows for detailed analysis and provides a basis for the development and evaluation of violence prevention strategies at the state and local levels.
Data collection for Ohio began with violent deaths occurring as of January 1, 2010. Effective September 12, 2012, OH-VDRS was formalized in Ohio Revised Code (refer to ORC 3701.93).
What is Considered a "Violent Death"?
For the purposes of data collection, the CDC considers a “violent” death to include deaths related to:
- Suicide (1,756)*
- Homicide (680)*
- Legal intervention (26)*
- Unintentional firearm (18)*
- Terrorism (0)*
- Undetermined intent (116)*
In 2019, there were 2,596 violent deaths among Ohio residents who died in Ohio. More than two-thirds of the violent deaths were suicides, while over a quarter were homicides.
Sources: ODH Bureau of Vital Statistics, OH-VDRS. *Number of deaths in 2019.
OH-VDRS links and includes data from the following sources:
- Vital Statistics (including death certificates)
- Coroners and medical examiners
- State and local law enforcement
- Child Fatality Review
- Ohio Automated Rx Reporting System (OARRS)
If you represent coroner or law enforcement and are interested in contributing your data to OH-VDRS, please contact 614-466-2144.
The OH-VDRS Membership represents a broad range of stakeholders including data collectors, researchers and prevention advocates. These partners advise on implementation of OH-VDRS as well as use of the data.
If you are interested in participating on the OH-VDRS Advisory Committee, please contact the OH-VDRS coordinator at 614-644-8816.
NAS Hospital Reporting
Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) Hospital Reporting
NAS is a serious withdrawal syndrome that can occur in newborns after exposure to opioids during pregnancy.
Ohio Revised Code 3711.30, which went into effect on July 10, 2014, requires maternity units, newborn care nurseries and maternity homes to report to the Ohio Department of Health (ODH) the number of newborns born to Ohio residents who are diagnosed with opioid dependence, commonly referred to as "NAS," at birth.
In order to assist hospitals in complying with this law, ODH partners with the Ohio Hospital Association (OHA) to access hospital discharge data associated with NAS. As a result of this partnership, Ohio hospitals that report their discharge data to OHA do not need to report to ODH in order to comply with the law; ODH obtains the required data from OHA’s discharge dataset.
Facilities that do not report data to OHA should contact ODH at HealthyOhio@odh.ohio.gov for instructions on how to report.
NAS Hospital Discharge Data Summaries
- From 2016 to 2020, there were approximately 9,417 hospital discharges due to NAS among Ohio residents in Ohio hospitals. Of those, 1,652 were in 2020.
- From 2016 to 2020, the hospital discharge rate of NAS decreased nearly 20% (158.6 per 10,000 live hospital births to 127.2 per 10,000).
- In 2020, 92% of hospital discharges for NAS (1,516) were covered by Medicaid compared to 47% of hospital discharges for all Ohio births.
- The average length of stay (LOS) for NAS has fluctuated throughout the years. In 2020, the average LOS for NAS (13.2 days) was 3.6 times higher than the average LOS for all Ohio births (3.7 days).
- In 2020, there were 460 hospitalizations among Ohio resident newborns associated with cocaine exposure, 1,018 associated with opioid exposure, 23 associated with sedative-hypnotic exposure, 17 associated with anxiolytic exposure, and 1,641 associated with exposure to other drugs of addiction. Among Ohio resident newborns from 2019 to 2020, hospitalizations associated with opioid exposure increased 16%.
- When compared to all Ohio resident infants born in Ohio hospitals in 2020, a higher percentage of NAS infants had feeding difficulties, low birth weight, respiratory symptoms, and seizures and convulsions.
*Note: Counts may not reflect unique individuals, as individuals may have been hospitalized multiple times for NAS.
Recommendations to Prevent NAS
- All newborns and at-risk breastfeeding children should be screened for NAS symptoms with standardized instruments like the Finnegan Neonatal Abstinence Scoring Tool.1 Hospital systems should hold mandatory trainings for staff with annual refresher trainings to ensure inter-rater reliability when scoring the instrument.
- The American Academy of Pediatrics suggests that all infants exposed to opioids be monitored for signs of withdrawal for four to seven days after birth.2,3 Physicians, other healthcare professionals and families should be educated about the signs and symptoms of NAS. A guide for families has been developed by the Ohio Perinatal Quality Collaborative.4
- Promising practices in treatment of NAS should be identified and promoted throughout the state. Ohio’s standard of care for NAS follows state and national research and is updated regularly as new information becomes available.5
- Women delivering NAS infants should be provided with information about the special needs of their newborns.
- Screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment (SBIRT) should be the standard in all medical practices.6 Healthcare providers should confirm suspicion of alcohol or drug use with questionnaires like the NIDA Drug Screening Tool7 or with a urine drug screen. Pregnant women found to be addicted to or dependent on substances should be referred to behavioral health treatment as soon as possible. The Ohio Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services has a referral gateway to Ohio behavioral health professionals.8
- Women of childbearing age being treated for substance use disorder should be counseled on the impact of substance use on pregnancy; these women should also be screened for hepatitis C and HIV because of the high comorbidity.
- All healthcare organizations that treat pregnant women, including those that address behavioral health, should consider establishing a maternal care home like the maternal opiate medical supports (MOMS) program.9 This model emphasizes care coordination and the provision of wrap around services from the prenatal phase through the postpartum phase of care. Results from this project have shown improved uptake of prenatal care, behavioral healthcare and medication-assisted treatment as well as an increase in treatment retention and family stability.
- Alcohol and drug abuse prevention activities should be targeted to women of child-bearing age.
- Prescribers should carefully consider whether opioid analgesics and other medications should be used during pregnancy. Physicians and patients should consult resources like the Treating for Two campaign about medication and pregnancy to make informed decisions.10
1Ohio Perinatal Quality Collaborative (2018). Finnegan neonatal abstinence scoring tool. Retrieved from https://opqc.net/sites/bmidrupalpopqc.chmcres.cchmc.org/files/NAS/Resources/Finnegan%20Neonatal%20Abstinence%20Scoring%20Tool_OPQC%20w%20cc.pdf.
2 Hudak M. L. & Tan R. C. (2012). Committee on drugs committee on fetus and newborn. American Academy of Pediatrics. Clinical Report. Neonatal drug withdrawal. Pediatrics, 129(2), 540-560. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-3212 pmid:22291123.
3 Patrick, S. W., Cooper, W. O., & Davis, M. M. (2017). Prescribing opioids and psychotropic drugs in pregnancy. British Medical Journal, 358, 3616 doi: 10.1136/bmj.j3616.
4 Ohio Perinatal Quality Collaborative (2018). Neonatal abstinence syndrome: A guide for families. Retrieved from https://opqc.net/sites/bmidrupalpopqc.chmcres.cchmc.org/files/Resources/Neonatal%20Abstinence%20Syndrome/opqc_nas_parent_guide_092914.pdf.
5 Ohio Perinatal Quality Collaborative (2017). Updates/changes to the recommended OPQC NAS protocol. Retrieved from https://opqc.net/sites/bmidrupalpopqc.chmcres.cchmc.org/files/NAS/OPQC%20Recommended%20NAS%20Protocol%20Changes%202017.pdf.
6 Ohio Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services (2018). Screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment. Retrieved from http://mha.ohio.gov/Treatment/SBIRT.
7 National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2018). NIDA drug screening tool. Retrieved from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/resource-guide-screening-drug-use-in-general-medical-settings/nida-quick-screen.
8 Emerald Jenny Foundation. (2018) This is the first step. Retrieved from https://www.emeraldjennyfoundation.org/.
9 Ohio Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services. (2018). M.O.M.S. Retrieved from http://momsohio.org/moms/.
10 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Treating for two: Medicine and pregnancy. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/pregnancy/meds/treatingfortwo/index.html.