The following tables and reports provide data on new diagnoses of HIV infection, persons living with diagnosed HIV infection and deaths among persons with an HIV infection. Diagnoses of HIV infection include persons with a diagnosis of HIV infection (not AIDS), a diagnosis of HIV infection and a later AIDS diagnosis, and concurrent diagnoses of HIV infection and AIDS. Persons living with diagnosed HIV infection represent all persons ever diagnosed and reported with an HIV infection who have not been reported as having died by December 31 of the reporting year. Deaths among persons with an HIV infection represent deaths attributed to any cause among persons reported with a diagnosis of HIV infection.
Guidance for Users of Ohio HIV/AIDS Surveillance Data
Explanation of Terms
Ohio’s HIV/AIDS surveillance data tables provide useful information on new diagnoses of HIV infection, persons living with an HIV infection, and deaths among person with an HIV infection reported to the ODH from physicians, hospitals, outpatient facilities and labs. A diagnosis of HIV infection refers to persons newly diagnosed and reported with an HIV infection in a particular year, regardless of the stage of disease at initial diagnosis. This includes persons newly diagnosed with HIV (not AIDS), persons previously diagnosed with HIV who are now newly diagnosed with AIDS, and persons concurrently diagnosed with HIV and AIDS at initial diagnosis. Persons living with diagnosed HIV infection represent all persons ever diagnosed and reported with an HIV infection since the beginning of the epidemic living in Ohio who have not been reported as having died. Deaths among persons with an HIV infection represent deaths attributed to any cause among persons reported with a diagnosis of HIV infection.
A key consideration for the analysis of HIV/AIDS surveillance data requires the factoring in of reporting delays. A reporting delay – the time between diagnosis of HIV and/or AIDS and report of the case to the public health authority – can differ among exposure, geographic, racial/ethnic, age, sex and vital status categories. In some instances, reporting delays for mode of exposure (i.e., risk factor) can be several years, even with active follow-up to obtain this key information.
All population-based disease surveillance systems experience reporting lags and incomplete reporting. The reporting lags for Ohio’s HIV/AIDS surveillance data range from 6-18 months. This is an acceptable range and is recognized as meeting the CDC national quality standards for HIV/AIDS reporting. This allows states time to collect more complete and accurate information so that the data can be used to accurately identify trends in HIV transmission and populations at risk.
Representativeness and Limitations of Data
HIV infection surveillance data represents confidential reports of HIV infection and AIDS diagnoses, though not all persons with an HIV infection. The distinction here is that HIV diagnosis data represent the earliest date of diagnosis reported to the ODH HIV/AIDS Surveillance Program. The earliest date reported may not be the earliest date an individual became aware of their HIV infection. Individuals may have previously tested anonymously or were diagnosed out-of-state prior to being confidentially tested and reported to Ohio. HIV infection surveillance data may underestimate the level of recently infected persons because some infected persons do not know they are infected as they have not sought testing or have sought testing but did not respond to learn their test results. Reporting of behavioral risk information may not be complete as some persons diagnosed with an HIV infection may be reluctant to disclose their sexual and drug use history.
Due to the long and variable period from initial HIV infection to the development of AIDS; trends in AIDS surveillance do not represent recent HIV infections. Asymptomatic HIV-infected persons are not represented by AIDS case data. In addition, incomplete HIV or CD4+ t-cell testing may interfere with the representativeness of reporting. Widespread use of HAART complicates the interpretation of AIDS case surveillance data and estimation of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in an area. Newly reported AIDS cases may reflect treatment failures or the failure of the health care system to halt progression of HIV infection to AIDS. AIDS cases represent late-stage HIV infection.
Detailed tables are presented for the most current year available, with data presented by selected characteristics and transmission categories for Ohio. A summary report includes a trend graph to visually display history of HIV and AIDS in Ohio since the beginning of the epidemic. The annual report provides descriptive summary reports analyzing HIV/AIDS surveillance data including new diagnoses of HIV infection, persons living with diagnosed HIV infection, and deaths among persons with an HIV infection presented by sex, age, race/ethnicity, transmission and exposure categories and geographic area in Ohio. A Power Point presentation describing the epidemiology and scope of HIV infection in Ohio is also included. Additionally, a HIV Continuum of Care report provides information regarding linkage to care and other continuum of care measures for persons diagnosed with HIV in Ohio.
- Ohio HIV Surveillance Tables
- Ohio HIV Summary
- Ohio HIV Infographic
- Ohio HIV Annual Report
- Ohio HIV Scope Presentation
- Ohio HIV Continuum of Care Report
Tables are presented for HIV prevention and Ryan White HIV Care Services Parts A regions.
|HIV Prevention Planning Groups||HIV Care Groups|
|Region 1||Ryan White Part A-Cleveland|
|Region 2||Ryan White Part A-Columbus|
Tables are presented for Ohio counties with the greatest HIV disease. The HIV surveillance data included in the Ohio county reports is based upon cases of HIV infection diagnosed and reported to the Ohio Department of Health. The HIV surveillance data included in each Ohio county report may differ.
Reports are included for both new reported diagnoses of HIV infection and persons living with diagnosed HIV infection for Ohio counties with a population of greater than 200,000 and at least 5 new reported diagnoses. Data suppression rules are applied for case counts <5 where the relevant substrata category has fewer than 100 persons. Zeros are displayed.
Reports are included for persons living with diagnosed HIV infection for Ohio counties that do not meet the minimum population and number of new reported diagnoses described above that have at least 100 reported persons living with diagnosed HIV infection. Data suppression rules are applied for case counts <5 where the relevant substrata category has fewer than 100 persons. Zeros are displayed.
For counties not meeting either criteria described above, total case counts are included in the Ohio tables.
Special Population Highlights
Brief written overviews of HIV/AIDS surveillance data with graphics, tables and narrative focusing on different at-risk populations to highlight disparities in HIV diagnoses in Ohio.
- HIV in Persons 50 and Over in Ohio
- HIV in American Indian/Alaskan Natives in Ohio
- HIV in Asian/Pacific Islanders in Ohio
- HIV in Black/African-Americans in Ohio
- HIV in Females in Ohio
- HIV in Hispanic/Latinx in Ohio
- HIV in Injection Drug Users (IDU) in Ohio
- HIV in Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Ohio
- HIV in Transgender Persons in Ohio
- HIV in Youth in Ohio
The comprehensive epidemiologic profile is produced quinquennially (every five years) and provides detailed information on the current status of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Ohio. It serves as a valuable resource for state and local HIV Prevention and Ryan White HIV Care Services programs for planning and evaluation. This report describes the general population of Ohio, persons with HIV infection in Ohio, persons at risk for HIV infection in Ohio and service utilization patterns among HIV-infected persons in Ohio. The profile includes extensive analysis and discussion of HIV/AIDS-related data from numerous data sources including general socio-demographic characteristics of Ohio's general population.
List of Figures
List of Tables
Section 1: Core Epidemiologic Questions
Question 1: What are the sociodemographic characteristics of the general population in Ohio?
Question 2: What is the scope of HIV/AIDS epidemic in Ohio?
Question 3: What are the indicators of risk for HIV infection and AIDS in Ohio?
Section 2: HIV Prevention Regional Summary Data
HIV/AIDS data by HIV Prevention Health Planning Region
Section 3: Special Questions and Considerations for Ryan White HIV/AIDS Care Act Grantees
Question 1: What are the HIV service utilization patterns of individuals in Ohio?
Question 2: What is the number of individuals who know they are HIV positive but who are not in care?
Section 4: Ryan White Part A and B Regional Summary Data
HIV/AIDS Surveillance data by Ryan White Part A and Part B Regions
Appendix A: Profile Data Sources
Appendix B: Glossary of Terms
Appendix C: Data Tables
Special analyses include reports of HIV/AIDS surveillance data and other data sources focusing on different at-risk populations in Ohio.